Animal of many shapes and sizes live all over the world


Animal of many shapes and sizes live all over the world. Including what walks or crawls on the ground, and what flies in the air or swims in the water. Valkhal and canary birds and toads gold, fish , butterflies and wormsall animals, as well as oysters , beetles , elephants and lobsters , sponges, seals and snakes. Many animals are so small that they can only be seen with a microscope. The largest animal is the blue sperm whale, its length is more than a row of five elephants.

Animal by Letter Lists
  • Animals that Start with A
  • Animals that Start with B
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  • Animals that Start with E
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  • Animals that Start with X
  • Animals that Start with Y
  • Animals that Start with Z

No one knows exactly how many species of animals there are in the world. Scientists have so far been able to classify more than a million animal species, but every year a few hundred new species are discovered.

The US has the world class Robert Hoatekr in 1969 neighborhoods in five kingdoms (major groups) are: Kingdom of the priorities of the nucleus (Almonnera), Kingdom Alfrticiat ( Albrootista ), Kingdom of fungi , the Kingdom of theplant and animal kingdom.

The diversity of animal life is limitless, as animals vary from complex animals such as great apes such as gibbon monkeys to minute parasites such as broad worms. Some animals such as the polar hook migrate great distances each year. Others, such as the plant-like sea ​​fan, spend most of their lives anchored to the ocean floor.

It is very easy to distinguish animals from other living things. For example, most animals are characterized by movement from one place to another, but most plants and fungi are fixed in their places where they grow by roots or by root-like structures. Animals feed on plants or other animals, while most plants make their own food from air and water using sunlight. Nevertheless, certain types of animals such as sponges spend all their lives after the larval stage attached to rocks at the bottom of the sea, while carnivorous plants grow in poor soil, but they eat insects to replace what they obtain from the meager food from the soil.

The huge blue sperm whale is much larger than the elephant, which is the largest land animal, or the giraffe, which is the tallest of all.

Most animals are made up of different types of cells, but protista and prokaryotes are made up of one type of cell.



  • 1animal species
    • 1.1Domestic and feral (wild) animals
    • 1.2Wild animals and aquatic animals
    • 1.3isopod animals
    • 1.4Warm-blooded and cold-blooded animals
  • 2Scientific classification of animals
  • 3The importance of animals
  • 4Animals Helping People
  • 5Animals harmful to humans
  • 6Animals affected by humans
  • 7Human protection for animals
  • 8animal environment
    • 8.1mountain animals
    • 8.2Natural grassland animals
    • 8.3temperate forest animals
    • 8.4Tropical forest animals
    • 8.5desert animals
    • 8.6arctic animals
    • 8.7ocean animals
  • 9animal life patterns
  • 10camouflage in animal
  • 11animal defenses
    • 11.1stealth
    • 11.2pretending to be dead
    • 11.3Defense by shields
    • 11.4Escape by Escape
    • 11.5Fighting
  • 12Animals and their young
  • 13animal houses
    • 13.1permanent residences
    • 13.2Residential Range (Regional)
  • 14Animals that live together
    • 14.1Regiments, flocks, and flocks
    • 14.2colonies
    • 14.3Posts between animals
  • 15thmigratory animals
    • 15.1ocean animals
    • 15.2the birds
    • 15.3insects
    • 15.4special migrations
  • 16animals and climate
    • 16.1The effect of cold on animals
    • 16.2The effect of heat on animals
    • 16.3Effect of drought or drought on animals
  • 17animal bodies
  • 18animal movement
    • 18.1feet and legs
    • 18.2wings and fins
  • 19animal feed
    • 19.1Nutrition by filtering food
    • 19.2Nutrition through the jaws and teeth
    • 19.3digestive organs
  • 20animal breathing
    • 20.1Breathing through the gills and lungs
    • 20.2special breathing methods
  • 21animal reproduction
    • 21.1asexual reproduction
    • 21.2Sexual reproduction
    • 21.3regeneration
  • 22animal senses
    • 22.1senses
    • 22.2the behavior
    • 22.3Communication between animals
  • 23classification of the animal kingdom
  • 24animal future
    • 24.1How do humans threaten animals?
    • 24.2Introducing new species
    • 24.3Population growth
    • 24.4How do humans protect animals?
    • 24.5protected areas
    • 24.6breeding
  • 25animal intelligence
  • 26Characteristics
  • 27Structure
    • 27.1Reproduction and development
    • 27.2Food and energy sources
  • 28Origin and fossil record
  • 29groups of animals
    • 29.1Deuterostomes
    • 29.2slacks
    • 29.3flats
    • 29.4Lophophore vegetatives
  • 30model object
  • 31Classification date
  • 32see also
  • 33Sources
    • 33.1margins
  • 34the reviewer
  • 35external links


animal species

Hummingbirds can fly vertically like a helicopter. And he can flutter in front of the flower to suck the nectar . And the bee hummingbird does not exceed 5 cm in length and is considered the smallest bird at all

Scientists have classified more than one million species of animals. They have identified about one million insectsalone. There are also 21,700 species of fish , 8,600 species of birds, 6,000 species of reptiles , 3,200 species ofamphibians and 4,000 species of mammals .

Each type of animal is different from the others; Each species has its own way of life that is compatible with the place in which it lives and the food it eats. However, many animals are similar in certain things. Some are kept as domestic pets, others are bred for meat production, and some animals are feral. Some animals live on land and some in water. Animals can be classified in many other ways based on their similarity, such as the number of legs they each have. Classifying animals according to their similarities is one of the good methods used in dividing the animal kingdom into few large groups. But the scientific study of animals requires more attention, as zoologists classify animals into groups based on their particular physical characteristics.

The cat and its relatives The felids include many feral animals with similar physical characteristics. They have many habits in common; They are intelligent hunters that monitor their prey silently and without making any sound. Their feet with fat cushions that absorb the sound of their movement help them. It pounces on the prey in time, tearing it with its claws and sharp teeth. Some use their claws to climb trees in search of prey or to escape from enemies.

Domestic and feral (wild) animals

Animals have been classified into domestic and feral according to their interactions with humans. The dog that does not bite and does not run away if someone tries to pet it, as well as the horse that does not kick, the cat that does not scratch, and the bird that sits on the finger of a human hand. The wild animals are afraid of approaching humans. The vast majority of animals are feral and individuals can be domesticated, but they often become feral again. Few feral animal species have been domesticated in large numbers. The majority of these animals are well-known domestic pets and farm animals.

Wild animals and aquatic animals

The majority of animals are divided into two large groups according to the environment in which they live. Some of them are wild and live on land, while others are aquatic and live in water. Wild animals include many types of animals such as great apes, butterflies, eagles, elephants, horses, pigeons, and spiders. Aquatic animals also include creatures as diverse as clams, fish, lobsters, sponges, and whales. Some animals such as dragonflies , frogs , horseshoe crabs (king crabs), salamanders, tortoises and toads spend part of their life on land and part in water.

isopod animals

Many animals may be classified according to the number of their legs, and each theropod may have two, four, six, eight, ten, or hundreds of legs. Bats and birds make up the majority of bipedal animals, while quadrupeds include the very familiar cats, cows, dogs , frogs, lions, and striped tigers . All types of insects have six legs and spiders have eight legs, while the number of legs in animals with 100 legs reaches 340. Many animals such as fish and worms do not have any legs at all.

Warm-blooded and cold-blooded animals

The body temperature of some animals remains constant at all times. These animals are called warm-blooded animals as their body temperature remains constant on hot days and on cold days. The body temperature of some other animals changes from time to time. These animals are called cold-blooded animals, as their body temperature is high in hot weather and low in cold weather, and the body temperature of these animals rarely differs from the temperature of the medium in which it is located. Birds and mammals (or milky animals or animals that raise their young on mother’s milk) are warm-blooded animals, while almost all other animals in the animal kingdom are cold-blooded. And cold-blooded animals include animals that have no blood at all, such as jellyfish and sponges .

Comparison of animal speeds

Scientific classification of animals

Zoologists classify animals according to their physical characteristics. This coordinated organization in the animal kingdom highlights the many connections between different animal groups.

Zoologists divide animals that share one or more of their physical characteristics into major groups, each of which is called a phylum. Zoologists also divide the animals belonging to each phylum according to certain differences between them into groups called faculties. Castes are divided into ranks, ranks into factions, families into genera, and genera into types. Zoologists use this arrangement to classify each animal species. There are animal classification tables at the end of this article showing the basic animal groups.

The importance of animals

Animals and plants are interconnected in a pattern of nature often called the web of life. This pattern can be seen in a garden or in the backyard of a house where a number of plants and animals live. There, many animals feed on some plants, and at the same time, most of the food that plants need comes from animal waste. It is this pattern that keeps the whole population of neighborhoods in balance as well.

Each animal species is an important part of a unique natural system. Animals help build life as they are food for humans and plants. At the same time, it destroys life as well, because it hunts and kills other animals as well as feeding on plants. As a result, it maintains the numerical balance of plants and animals. This balance is important in nature, and is often called the web of life.

And humans may not be able to live without the help of animals. The role animals play in the natural balance is the most important service they perform for humanity. Moreover, animals provide humans with many different foods and other beneficial products. Without animals, humans would not have food such asmeat, milk, eggs , and honey , or useful products such as wool, fur , and silk .

Thousands of years ago, humans made changes in the animal world, as they domesticated species of animals and exploited them in the production of various food and clothing, as well as killing or displacing animals that attacked them or that hindered their land reclamation. Today, humans are trying to protect species of animals that they have endangered.

Most plants, like humans, depend on animals for their basic needs. Without animals, many plants would not reproduce (producing new generations of the same kind). For example, many flowering plants depend onbees and other insects to carry pollen from one plant to another.

Some oaks also grow from acorns that squirrels have buried as food supplies, and I have forgotten the sites where they were buried. Likewise, a number of oak trees grow from the acorns that the deer have trampled under their feet and buried deep in the soil. Birds fly from one place to another, often with plant seeds attached to their legs. Some seeds also have prickly coats attached to the fur of animals, which carry them long distances where the seeds grow away from the mother plant.

Animals eat or break down plants, but both depend on each other for their food, with most animal wastes making fertilizer for plants. After the death and decomposition of animals and plants, they return to the soil the materials that aid growth and life.

Some animals change the nature of their environments by depositing solid materials in those environments, as coral animals do, for example, by forming limestone in their environments from lime that they absorb from sea water to form their limestone structures.

Hunting animals have been used by humans throughout history. This 15th-century French embroidered tapestry shows hunting dogs holding a unicorn.

The use of animals for commercial purposes has been important since ancient times. Pictured is a wall painting of nomadic merchants that decorates an ancient Egyptian tomb.

Animals in battle helped shape history. This Indian miniature depicting Alexander the Great in one of his battles

Animals Helping People

Human knowledge of animals began when they were hunting them for their food and when they were hunting them for their food. The first steps that early man took towards civilization was to make dogs his hunting companions. Perhaps the dog was the first pet that man domesticated and used to hunt other animals for food. After that, man learned to domesticate the animals he hunted for his food. About 12,000 years ago, cows were domesticated in the area that now belongs to the southern parts of the Central Asian republics independent of the former Soviet Union. In the Far East, the Tibetans domesticated the yak (Tibet bull). The Lappies, a nomadic people living in northern Europe, had herds of domestic reindeer . has been domesticatedNative Americans in South America flocks of alpacas andllamas .

Humans domesticated goats and sheep first for their meat, then humans learned to use their fur, leather and wool to make clothes and homes. Likewise, the horse was first domesticated for meat, then humans learned to ride a pet horse and used it to pull loads and weights. The pig was domesticated about 8,000 years ago in the Neolithic era, and the camel was domesticated in southern Arabia and in Babylon in Iraq to ride and carry weights. The donkey was a heavy bearer in North Africa about 5,000 years ago. The ancient Egyptians domesticated the cat to protect their grainstores from mice and rats .

The bathroom first Ostins of birds, where the rears Basin residents the Mediterranean Sea about 5,000 years ago to flesh. Domestic chickens were first bred in Southeast Asia from feral orangutans . And Ostins ducks and geese since the dawn of history. Amerindians were raising turkeys in what is now Mexico long before Christopher Columbus sailed to America.

Even insects have been exploited by humans for their own interests. For hundreds of years, bees have been producing honey for humans and help pollinate fruit trees in many places. Thousands of years ago, the ancient Chinese began breeding silk worms and producing natural silk from their cocoons.

Dogs , guinea pigs, mice and other rodents have been used to increase people’s knowledge of many diseases. Doctors test new drugs in animals first before using them in humans, and animals also provide humans with many important drugs such as insulin and serums that are used to fight diseases.

Animals harmful to humans

Humans killed most of the animals that hunted them. Most feral animals attack humans only when they are unable to escape from them or to defend their young. But there are a few animals such as lions and striped tigers that still hunt humans, but these animals do not do so unless they are hit by hunters or have become so old that they cannot hunt their usual prey from other animals. They may eat human flesh according to their natural approach to a variety of food. But crocodiles and sharks eat whatever meat they find when they are hungry. Poisonous snakes cause death to humans in many parts of the world. The most dangerous enemies of humans from animals are parasites of some insects, worms and other small animals. The parasite lives on the surface or inside the bodies of other animals or plants and feeds on them. Parasites include blood-sucking insects such as mosquitoes and fliesTsetse who transmit deadly diseases. Mosquitoes transmit malaria , yellow fever and other diseases, while tsetse flies transmit sleeping sickness, which kills many people, and the deadly disease of the fly transmits to cows and horses. As for fleas and lice, they transmit plague and typhus fever .

Micro-parasites that enter the human body cause many diseases. There are more than one hundred species of worms pathogenic live inside human bodies , such as worms schistosome worms liver and worms hookworms and tapewormsflat worms capillary . The bodies of these worms consist mainly of limited layers of cells. The cell is a unit of living matter.

Animals affected by humans

Humans have affected the animal kingdom in many ways. Some animal species have disappeared because humans have killed large numbers of them, others are on the way to disappearing, because humans have robbed them of their living quarters, while biologists have selected through crossbreeds non-existent breeds of animals. Prehistoric humans hunted animals of that time such as mammoths and cave bears to a point that led them to extinction, and then humans killed the wild aurochs bull, which was abundant in Europe. They also nearly annihilated the North American bison, a rough-haired animal usually called a buffalo that now lives on private farms and national reserves.

Many animals have diminished because humans have taken advantage of their former living places to build cities and farms. These animals include antelopes, elephants, rhinos, and zebras. Through selective crossbreeding, traits were selected from selected domestic breeds. An example of this is that the meat of some chicken breeds tastes better than it used to be. Some chicken breeds produce more eggs, and goat and rabbit breeds produce better fur used in the clothing industry. Certain breeds of animals were also elected to perform certain purposes and tasks, such as the German short-legged ashland dog breed that specializes in fighting badgers that live in narrow dens (tunnels) dug in agricultural lands, and the sheep dog breed that is highly efficient in guarding and grazing herds of sheep. There are breeds of cows with high productivity of dairy, and other breeds of high productivity of meat.

Human protection for animals

It is the duty of man to conserve the animal species that currently exist in the world for the benefit of future generations. There are certain types of animals that are threatened with extinction because of human overhunting, and some of them do not have enough places for them to live and reproduce. Accordingly, many nations have set aside special reserves for wildlife and enacted the necessary laws to prevent hunting animals inside those reserves, and to prevent over-hunting of them in special places outside those reserves.

The protection and development of wildlife plays an important role in maintaining the natural balance. In North America, for example, coyotes cannot attack humans’ flocks of sheep when they find enough of their natural prey of mice and the American rabbit . Suppose that humans killed American rabbits to feed their mink, which they raise on farms to produce fine fur. In this case, the coyotes remain hungry even after they have eaten all the mice prepared for them, and so they are forced to attack humans’ flocks of sheep out of hunger.

animal environment

Animals are found in all places, in all types of climates on Earth, and at all levels of depth in the oceans. Many types of animals live in the same place for the most part, and they are usually the same animals that lived in that place thousands of years ago. Therefore, the bodies of the animals and their ways of living are perfectly compatible with the conditions of their existence. Therefore, these animals move easily through those places, and find their food easily in them and multiply abundantly in those places. The environment in which the animal lives is called the animal environment, and the following is a grouping of animals according to their environment.

mountain animals

mountain animals

Mountain ranges include all types of climates and animal environments. Few animals, except insects and spiders, can survive in the freezing cold of the snow-capped mountaintops. Slightly below the ice caps, most mountainous areas contain rocky places and steep rocky cliffs. There are animals that can climb rocks and cliffs with high efficiency, such as mountain goats and sheep, and small animals such as pikas similar to rabbits, and many birds build their nests between rocky cliffs. The Nepalese Swift bird builds its nests at an altitude of about 6,100 m above sea level, as in the Himalayas. Almost all mountain ranges have peaks and slopes covered with grasses or valleys covered with forests where grassland animals such as vakuna and yak live. Many mountain animals wander from one altitude to another in search of food according to the changing seasons.

Natural grassland animals

Natural grassland animals

The majority of the largest and fastest predatory animals live in the vast expanses of open plains known as the Natural Plains. The largest in the natural grassland are elephant, hippopotamus, and rhinoceros, while the fast-growing natural grassland animals include black deer, kudu zebra, ostrich, spiny-horned deer, and zebra. There are more animals in the natural grasslands and open plains in the continent of Africa, where lions are hunted and giraffes, which are considered among the animals of the African natural grasslands, live. Kangaroos are the most common natural grassland animal in Australia. Many small, natural grassland animals burrow into the ground for shelter, such as the North American prairie dog, one of the largest of the rodents.

temperate forest animals

temperate forests

Most of the animals that live in temperate forest areas are small in body and can move easily through the thick grass that grows in the forest floor. These animals include sedans, hedgehogs, porcupines, raccoons, skunks, and squirrels. There are also large animals such as bear, wild boar, red deer and moose in these areas. The forests, lakes, and streams of temperate regions also harbor animals that live on land and in the water, including beavers, frogs, muskrats, otter, salamanders and water turtles . Many birds build their nests in temperate forests where they feed on insects and worms that live among plants and in rich soil. Most of the temperate forests are found in the continents of Asia, Europe, and North America, while some of those forests are found in the continent of Australia, where the hedgehog and koala live.

Tropical forest animals

Tropical forest animals

Tropical forest animals live in a hot environment all year round. These animals include the anteater, the jaguar, the tiger tapir, and the striped tiger. Tropical forests include places with few trees in areas of medium rain, and places with dense trees in areas of heavy rains. In tropical rainforests, the treetops and thrones form a dense vertical cover called the canopy, where climbing animals such as monkeys and sloths live . Live in tropical rain forests as well as monkeys Elchibon and Salah Great apes , as parrots nesting in trees with bright colors and lots of other birds. Many tropical rainforest birds feed primarily on large ant camps and other insects. Snakes like boas and spiders like tarantulas grow large in tropical rainforests.

desert animals


desert animals

Most desert animals have small bodies. And the small size enables these animals to escape from the harsh heat of the sun that inflames the deserts during the day, as most of these animals hide in their underground dens during the day, to escape the burning desert sun. Other desert animals shelter under small bushes, rocks, and large trees. But most deserts cool off after dusk, at which point the animals scavenge for food. Some lizards, snakes and turtles prefer to search for food during the intense heat of the day. And most desert animals can live without water for several days. The Arabian camel is one of the most famous of these animals in this regard, as it can travel in the desert for many days without drinking. Animals of deserts include mice, hares, rabbits, kangaroo mice, and the scoop-footed toad. Large desert animals include coyotes, wild dingoes, and roe deer.

arctic animals

animals of the polar regions.

Few of the wild animals live in the polar regions where there is snow and ice all year round. But even the coldest waters of the Arctic and Antarctica have huge numbers of fish. These fish in the Arctic are an important food source for polar bears that live on the islands and snow of the Arctic , while penguins and other birds in the Antarctic Circle feed on sea fish. South Pole. Many animals live in the tundra areas (swamps and plains) in northern Asia, northern Canada and northern Europe. These include animals grazing animals, such as deer caribou and musk ox , as well as wild rabbit and Alakkakom (animal platoon girls wedding ) and fox gray bear And lemmings, wolf and wolf beast. The birds of the Arctic include the northern great grebe, alpine snow partridge, hill crane, ice owl, and golden grouse .

ocean animals

ocean animals

Animals live everywhere from the vast ocean waters that cover 70% of the Earth’s surface. Many small animals such as copepods like shrimp form the zooplankton, a mass of microorganisms that drift with ocean currents and tides . Whales – the largest of all animals – live in the oceans. Just as large ocean animals include dugongs, octopus , shark, and stingrays , many brightly colored fish live near coral reefs in tropical ocean waters. Most fish live near the coasts of continents, although some, such as flying fish, live in the middle of the seas. Many animals with shells live, such as sea-binding oystersAnd animals with thorns like sea ​​urchins on the bottom of the oceans.

animal life patterns

The tuatara are the last remaining prehistoric reptiles. It is one of the few animals that live so far and is very similar to its ancestors that roamed the world millions of years ago. The lizard-like tuatara lives on rocky islands in New Zealand.

All the animals of the animal kingdom live in a constant struggle for survival. Animals have so far won that struggle, but many have lost that struggle in the past, and many may lose the struggle in the future. Dinosaurs and prehistoric animals disappeared long ago, as did some other animals over the past few times, with at least a dozen species becoming extinct during the 20th century. Among those species are the American migratory pigeon, which has become extinct since 1914 AD, the Tulash kangaroo from Australia since 1940 AD, and the coastal sparrow from the US state of Florida since 1989 AD. Animals that survive today have successful means of survival. Some of them live to breed and raise their young, as they have the means that enable them to find sufficient food when food is scarce, and they can find new places to live, when their homes are destroyed by fire or floods, and they can defend themselves if other animals attack them.

camouflage in animal

Protective coloring makes many animals happy to hide from their enemies. The flatfish’s body colors change to adapt to the ocean floor, making it invisible. Many birds, such as pheasants, have colors that show them as if they are part of the middle in which they build their nests. It is difficult to see the young of many types of deer, as their colors resemble the colors of the forest in which they live. And many moths have colors similar to the colors of the trunks, the branches of some trees, which makes them disappear completely when they land on those trees. And the animal that deceives its enemies with protective coloring remains completely still until the danger is removed from them.

animal defenses

Each type of animal has its own defensive means with which to defend itself. The animal may be attacked by other animals that want to hunt it for their food or by humans to hunt it in order to fulfill the hunting hobby. Some animals may disappear when they sense danger, and the animal may pretend to be dead until the enemy goes away. Many types of animals have shields in their bodies to protect them, while many animals try to escape from their enemies, but if they are prevented from escaping, they usually stand up and defend themselves and their young.


Many animals hide when enemies approach them. Some animals have a coloration that matches the medium in which they are to the point where it is difficult to distinguish, while the bodies of some animals resemble parts of plants. Animals that have these characteristics can simply disappear, by remaining still. And the various methods that are used to hide the appearances of real things are called camouflage.

And animals that rely on their color to hide from enemies are said to have protective colouring. The gray-winged moth is indistinguishable if it rests on a gray tree trunk, and it is difficult to distinguish a brown toad sitting on brown ground. Also, many birds rely on their colors to hide from enemies. The bodies of some tropical birds, such as the toucans, have a variety of bright colors. This color scheme does not show the bird’s body against the speckled background arising from the passage of sunlight through the branches and leaves in the forest where it lives.

And some animals change their colors to match the color of the background in which they are found, such as the chameleon, which can change its color quickly according to the color of the medium in which it is located, and some types of shrimp take the colors of the surrounding seaweed.

Animals that rely on their shapes for disguise are said to have a protective resemblance. Many types of hoppers similar to the thorns of the plants in shape. The mantis, on the other hand, has a broad body and wings that resemble leaves, so it looks like a rolled-up leaf if left still. It is often called the occult bird, because of its good protective resemblance to its long neck and streamlined body; When he stretches his neck and stands still between reeds and linen, it is difficult to distinguish from them. It features a fish with a protective resemblance thickness of the Frog and the thickness of tendrils. The serrated fins of the frogfish make it look like a floating aquatic plant, and the long bodies of tendrils make it look like the leaves of a plant submerged in water. Hunting animals also hide. If the striped tiger stands still among the tall grasses, the outline of its body makes it merge with the shadows of the grass and is difficult to distinguish, and the pure white polar bear appears to be fading among the snows.

pretending to be dead

Some animals sometimes deceive their enemies by appearing to be dead. If an opossum feels threatened, for example, it will close its eyes and stiffen its body and remain that way if it is picked up, thrown, rolled, or even gently bitten. A dog that always attacks a living opossum doesn’t care about the last dead one. Among the animals that pretend to die in order to escape from enemies are some beetles and the pig-nosed snake (a snake of the uraeus family), as these animals turn on their back and look like dead if they feel threatened.

Defense by shields

Some animals have hard shells or covers that they use as shields. Some animals have sharp forelimbs or thorns that they use to defend themselves. Binding oysters and snails retract inside their shells, locking them tightly against their body until all danger is gone. The armored animal has a strong cover made of small bony plates that it retracts inside when it senses danger. The porcupine has thorns with hooked blades like fish hooks, where the animal arches its back if attacked, so its thorns erect in all directions. If touched, some of these thorns rush off, causing painful wounds. The porcupine fish has a short, round body covered with sharp spines. The body of the fish swells if attacked, and its spines erect like porcupines to defend itself.

Escape by Escape

Most animals try to escape from danger as quickly as possible, some outrunning most of their attackers. Deer, deer, horse, kangaroo and ostrich have long legs and can travel great distances at high speed, while rabbits make high and zigzag jumps very quickly. Many other short-legged animals, such as the prairie dog, cannot run long distances at high speed. Accordingly, it rushes to burrows in the ground that other animals cannot chase after it inside. Some small birds fly inside dense bushes, where attackers from large birds or other animals cannot follow them. But usually most birds fly quickly when they sense danger.


Many types of animals have special weapons to fight their enemies. Horses and mules, for example, have sharp hooves and strong teeth that they use to fight. As for moose, elk, and other types of deer, they not only kick their hooves in combat, but also use their horns as weapons. Kangaroos and ostriches have a strong claw on one of their toes, with which they can gnaw the stomach of the enemy. The anteater has hooked claws on its powerful front legs, which it uses to tear apart its enemies. As for the European and African feral pigs, they rely on their sharp canines to fight. The lion and other felids fight with sharp claws and powerful teeth and jaws. The baboon has large, sharp fangs and powerful jaws that it uses if attacked. The baboons may kill the tiger in combat. Vultures, hawks and owls use their powerful claws and strong hooked beaks in combat. Some large snakes, such as the anaconda, the boa constrictor, and the python wrap their strong, muscular bodies in rings around their enemies in combat to squeeze them out. They also use the same method for hunting their prey. You can squeeze an animal the size of a deer for a while, killing it by suffocation. Many animals also use chemical weapons. Some, such as many ants, bees and wasps, have poisons that they inject into their enemies through stinging tools, while some snakes and spiders inject their venom through their fangs. When frightened or threatened, the skunk spews a strong foul-smelling liquid from glands near its tail that repels its enemies.

Animals and their young

Many young animals do not need any care from their parents. Shortly after can for the young movement and find food birth. The young of some other animals need care for some time after they are born, as they are fed and protected by their parents so that they can take care of themselves. Many species of ocean animals can take care of themselves from birth. Among these animals are mollusks, sea urchins, and starfish, which their parents do not pay any attention to. Some fish, such as salmon, travel thousands of kilometers to lay their eggs in certain rivers. But then leaves the eggs and young that hatch without any care. So do the sea turtles that come out of the sea to the sandy beaches where they lay their eggs and return to the sea leaving the eggs and the small turtles that hatch from it without any care. This is also done by some frogs and toads, as they leave their eggs in ponds and what hatches from Abu Thiniba without care. And most insects do nothing more than lay eggs in places where the young find food when they hatch from the eggs. But sea horses are famous for the protection they give their young, as the male carries the eggs in a pocket on the lower side of his body. After the hatchlings hatch, the father takes them out one by one into the seaweed, where they find food. The male sickle-back builds a nest of roots and sticks in which the female lays eggs and guards the nest for several days after the eggs hatch. Young pouches such as kangaroos and opossums remain in a pouch attached to the mother’s abdomen where they are fed and protected by the mother. Ants and bees are concerned with their young in particular, as certain members of the ant and bee colonies bring food to the young and spend most of their time caring for the young. Many birds and mammals are not only concerned with his young, but he also trains them on many important and beneficial methods. It warms the young and feed them and teach them flying and fishing. Some feral animals seem to teach their young to fear humans. A young deer may not show any interest when a person approaches it, but if its mother shows any fear, the young runs quickly with its mother. And sometimes female wolves warn their young of the traps set by humans, so they show signs of fear and confusion when they come with their young for the first time in an area where there are snares. Accordingly, youngsters avoid traps when they go alone.

animal houses

Most animals spend their lives moving from one place to another. Most fish rest, wherever they find a suitable place, where they do not build any housing, while other animals move from place to place for most of their lives, but build a home for them to raise their young. Some fish build nests among aquatic plants for their young. Most birds generally move from one place to another, but they usually build nests in the spring to lay eggs. There are other animals that build dwellings in which they reside throughout their lives, and these animals are not far from the dwellings.

permanent residences

Many animals have long-lasting habitats, with the European badger living in a network of underground dens (tunnels) called the six, while the owl, raccoon and chipmunk live in hollow tree trunks or in dead trees. The beaver builds houses of mud and twigs on the banks of streams, rivers, and waterways, and cleverly makes its entrance from the bottom of the dwelling, where it can only be reached through water, to protect against many of its enemies. The bears take dens from the caves, and the lion takes his lair in a hidden place like a dense bush.

Insects build dwellings in colonies with interlocking rooms and corridors, where ants dig tangled pits (tunnels) in the ground or in high mounds of soil. These tunnels lead to rooms in which they raise their young, and to rooms that use warehouses and special rooms used in cold weather or rainy weather, while bees build their hives from wax. The hives contain many rooms that are used for various purposes, including incubators for raising young. Wasps build multicellular nests from leaves that they make themselves.

Residential Range (Regional)

Most animals, even those that do not build homes, live within certain limits that represent the housing range of each animal. The animal not only lives within the boundaries of its territory, but also expels other animals of the same kind from it. Some animals migrate for long distances at certain times of the year, but wherever they are, each of them resides within a certain residential range, which may be in the form of a barrier fence in which some lizards live, and other lizards that approach that area are expelled from them. A pair of robins that nest in a tree drives away other robins from approaching that tree. The parrotfish is seen swimming within a specific area of ​​the coral reef for fear of entering the home range of another parrot fish. The Snowshoe Rabbit is not more than half a kilometer away from his birthplace. If a fox chases it, the rabbit runs to the bounds of its territory, and then heads in another direction without crossing the bounds of its territory.

Zoologists often mark an animal with a ring bearing a number or symbol that identifies that animal. In this way, scientists have found that many animals live within certain boundaries or prefer certain places to live. A North American garter has been found several times on a hillside about 30 meters long and 9 meters wide. When disturbed, bats move from one cave to another, but return to their original habitat after moving only a few times.

Animals that live together

Many animals live in groups containing members of the same species or with other species, with all the individuals participating in the group benefiting.

Regiments, flocks, and flocks

Birds may migrate or nest together in flocks, while some species of mammals live together in flocks. Fish such as herring and sardines swim together in flocks of thousands of individuals. In most animal groups a few individuals are leaders and the other individuals remain subordinate. Leaders remain in place to defend the group or prepare to defend it. Chickens and some other bird species have a pecking system. Each member of the herd struggles to maintain its position in the clicking system. This system prioritizes food and drink for individuals who peck other people, but gives way to chickens who peck them.


Some insects such as ants, honeybees, and termites live in colonies where the queens lay all the eggs while the workers gather food for the colony. Also among the ants and termites there are soldiers with powerful jaws who defend and protect the colony. Some animals live so close together that they look like one animal. The Portuguese barge, for example, is a group of many animals floating in the sea. Each member of the group has a specific role to play, as some individuals hunt food and other individuals digest it, and other individuals reproduce and produce young.

Posts between animals

Different animals sometimes help each other to the point of being partners. There is, for example, what is known as bait fish, which is a small fish that swims near sea anemones perched on coral reefs in the Pacific Ocean. When larger fish try to catch bait, they become easy prey for sea anemones. When anemones swallow larger fish, the bait fish will nibble on some parts of the larger fish. Some white herons, known as cowbirds, live near antelopes, cows, and elephants in Africa, where the movement of large animals between grasses provokes insects perching on grasses, and then it is easier for cows to catch these insects. The cow usually sits on the backs of large animals, and if the bird feels the approach of danger, it will fly from the backs of the animals, and this also warns the animals of danger.

migratory animals

Repeated circular migrations The white stork, which spends spring and summer in northern Europe, performs repeated circular migrations. Each fall, it flies through one of the paths shown on the map to spend the winter in Africa and then returns to Europe via the same path it took before.

Many animals migrate at certain times in groups. Some of them migrate to escape from the cold weather or to find a source of abundant food, while others migrate over long distances to preferred food places or special places for breeding. Some animals also make circular trips at regular times of the year in large groups called animal migration. Before winter enters, caribou, elk and elk migrate from their colder habitats to warmer regions, where they find food during the bitterly cold and icy winter months. Wolves and other animals that hunt elk follow these animals in their migration to their winter feeding grounds.

ocean animals

Migratory ocean animals include many species of whales, which migrate during the summer to cold waters to feed, and return in the winter to warm waters to breed. Eels and salmon are famous for their long breeding migrations. The eels that live in the rivers and streams of Europe and eastern America swim at certain times in the Atlantic Ocean to the Sargasso Sea to lay their eggs among the dense seagrass there and die. Young eels swim back to the same places from which their parents came (the rivers and streams of Europe and Eastern Europe). On the contrary, most salmon live in ocean waters for many years, and when the time comes for breeding, they migrate thousands of kilometers to the upper rivers and shallow inland streams in which they were born to lay their eggs there and die. Small salmon fish also swim across those rivers to the high seas and oceans and so forth.

the birds

Many birds have long seasonal migrations. Migratory birds that live in the northern hemisphere migrate south every year before winter and return north in spring. Some of them fly short distances, such as the robin, which only goes to where its food is available from pulp fruits and worms. But the storks of northern Europe migrate longer distances as they spend the winter between the swamps of the Nile River in Egypt. The champion of the long-distance migration of birds is the polar hook bird, whose flocks leave their nesting places in the northern islands of the Arctic Ocean around the end of August each year, migrating south to the shores of Antarctica, where the fish that these birds feed on are abundant. the time. In mid-June the snow melts from the Arctic Ocean, fish are plentiful there again, and the Arctic terns return to their nesting places in the Arctic. And that trip takes about 35,


The Queen Butterfly, which lives in North America, migrates every fall from the north of the continent to the southern United States and Central America, and begins its journey back north next spring. Most of the elderly butterflies will die on the way north, but the young butterflies continue the journey north. The colorful lady butterflies cross the Mediterranean from Europe to Africa during the winter to breed, and the butterflies that were born on the African continent cross the Mediterranean back to Europe again to lay their eggs there and so on. The American colored lady butterflies travel annually from California, across the Pacific, to the Hawaiian Islands and back to California.

special migrations

Some animals have migrated with humans across the oceans. Europeans brought rabbits with them from Europe to the continent of Australia more than 100 years ago and now the young of those rabbits live across most of the Australian continent. Similarly, the Premier League sparrow was brought from England to the United States around the mid-1800’s.

animals and climate

Most wild animals face many dangers from bad weather. Storms and fluctuations in the weather that do not last for long usually pass safely. But the greatest dangers it faces are related to the weather, resulting from cold, heat, drought or drought (interruptions of rain) that last for a long time. These weather conditions often destroy food sources and the animals’ drinking water. Also, many animals cannot live long under extreme cold or heat conditions. But changes in temperature do not affect animals living in the oceans as much as they do land animals. The reason for this is that changes in temperature do not occur at the same speed or to the same extent in water as in land. Therefore, the migratory aquatic animals have a longer time than the land animals to migrate.

The effect of cold on animals

Many animals that live in cold regions go into hibernation, sleeping in a burrow or in a cave throughout the winter until spring. Many of them do not eat during the long period of hibernation, but store food in the form of fat during their feeding in the summer and their bodies utilize the fat stored during hibernation. Animals that hibernate include bats, frogs, skunks, and most ungulates such as prairie dogs. Many insects such as bees and some butterflies also sleep during the cold seasons. Some animals that live in hot regions avoid extreme heat in a very similar way, hibernating during the summer, including lung fish and some snails. Some Arctic animals stay in their snowy kennels all year round, and some small animals that live in the Arctic or in high mountain regions are often active under the winter snows, including lemmings and polar mice. The alpine snow partridge stays in its arctic regions throughout the winter period while other arctic birds migrate south. The reason for this is that the alpine snow partridge has feathers that cover its feet and protect it from the cold, which enables it to move easily over the ice, and therefore this bird does not care about the ice, nor the cold arctic waters, and often dives in the icy beaches to spend the night there. In Antarctica, the emperor penguin avoids freezing in the bitter cold by standing on the snow, with its back facing the frozen wind, and that bird lays eggs even in winter and incubates its eggs between its toes, where it hides its feet and eggs under its soft feathers at the bottom of its body, and there the young hatch and remain warm during its growth. The musk ox and polar bear remain in the far north of the Arctic during the winter, while caribou migrate south. The reason for this is due to the thick fur of the musk ox and the polar bear, which makes them tolerant of the harsh cold in the Arctic winter. The arctic fox and hare can also withstand the cold of arctic winters because their ears and tails are much shorter than those of foxes and rabbits that live in warmer regions. When these polar animals curl up to fend off the cold, their short ears and tails prevent them from losing body heat.

The effect of heat on animals

As we have seen, the short ears and tails have enabled some animals to withstand the cold, and the length of those organs has enabled other animals to withstand heat. These animals include foxes, mice, and American rabbits, which live in dry deserts and plains, and have long ears and tails that enable them to withstand extreme heat. At the height of the heat during the day, these animals remain in their underground burrows, where the air is cooler, enabling them to partially lose heat from their bodies through their long ears and tails.

Effect of drought or drought on animals

Drought or drought often threatens animals that live in warm regions. Meanwhile, food is depleted, drinking water sources dry up, and many animals die, but some of them are resistant to these conditions. Some desert insects and certain lizards obtain water by eating cacti, which store water. Kangaroo rats that live in dry areas of North America also get water from the grain they feed on. In fact, these rats do not drink water throughout their lives, and many desert snakes live without water for a long time. Camels remain for many days without water and are active and strong despite the desert heat. The reason for this is that it secretes very little sweat and keeps water inside its body despite the very high temperature. It also stores food in the form of fat in the hump and thus remains strong and active without food because it obtains energy from the fat stored in the hump.

animal bodies

foot types

Each type of animal has special physical features that are compatible with its way of life, and enable it to live according to the requirements of its environment. An animal uses some parts of its body for movement, some for feeding, some for breathing, some for reproduction, and some for responding to the influences of its environment. And all this is the result of adapting to the requirements of life.

animal movement

All animals move some time during their lives, but the means of movement vary greatly from animal to animal. Many tiny animals live in a liquid medium; Accordingly, they move by means of hairy protuberances in their bodies called cilia. Among those animals are planarians, a type of flatworms that live in water or in moist soil and move by gliding by means of cilia on the lower surface of their body. Fully-grown coral and sponge animals swim freely in the seas by means of cilia, but they quickly stick to rocks or any solid object and live like this throughout their lives. Accordingly, only animals with minute bodies can move by means of hairy protuberances on their bodies, such as cilia. The snails move on paths of their own making, producing a sticky substance from the bottom of their flat feet, and the edges of that foot glide through the sticky substance in an undulating motion that pushes the snail forward.

feet and legs

Sea urchins, sea stars and some of their echinoderm relatives move on tube feet, which are tiny flexible tubes that protrude from the animal’s body. At the end of each there is a tiny sucking disc used to stick to solid objects. In this way, the animal can push or pull itself by moving its tube feet. The hedgehog often uses its hard, mobile spines to help it move, as it protrudes from its shell like stilts, thus lifting the shell off the ocean floor and preventing it from drifting across the bottom. The main movement of the animal is carried out by the tube feet. Water provides animals with a great support for their bodies as they float on top of it that wild animals do not have. Thus, we see that amphibians (animals that live in water and land) such as frogs and salamanders move easily in the water, but on land they cannot even stand on their feet and therefore lie on the ground. Frogs use their hind legs to move in sudden successive leaps. As for salamanders, they crawl on their short legs that extend on the sides of their bodies and bend their bodies so that the short legs can rest on the ground to be able to move. As for crocodiles, birds and most mammals, they have strong legs that extend from the lower side of their bodies. Thus, the legs are used as supports for the bodies and tools for movement on the ground. In general, the fastest land animals are those with longer legs in relation to their body size. These animals include antelopes, elk, horses, ostriches, hummingbirds, and zebras. Some of these animals can run at speeds of more than 80 km per hour, but the hunter cheetah, which is one of the large animals with long legs and belongs to the family Felidae, can outrun all animals in the run. Insects use their six legs for excellent balance. It usually stands on a set of three legs while moving the other three legs to another position in its movement.

wings and fins

Most full-grown insects can fly and walk, because they have one or two pairs of wings in addition to their six legs. Birds and bats have a pair of wings in place of the front legs. Bats are the only mammals that have wings. Whales and dolphins move their tails up and down, pushing their streamlined bodies forward through the water. Its front legs are flippers that are used primarily for balance and rotation. Most fish swim by moving their powerful caudal fins from side to side. The other fins are mainly used for balance. The rays and rays have broad side fins that resemble wings, so they appear to be flying through the water. And few marine animals have special ways to swim. Lobsters and lobsters bend their caudal fins down to push back, and squid and cuttlefish are pushed back by a type of jet propulsion, which pulls water into a large body cavity and pushes it out through a narrow anterior opening, forcing the animal back. The oyster propeller propels forward in a similar way, drawing water between the two slits of its articulated shell and pushing it out through small openings near the joint of the shell.

animal feed

Nutrition by filtering food

This method uses aquatic animals, from single-celled animals such as Paramecium to the largest animal, the blue sperm whale, who obtain their food by filtering plankton from the water. Paramecium uses a special type of cilia to push water containing bacteria through the hollow vestibule at the bottom of its body into its mouth, where it filters the bacteria from the water and eats them. Oysters also use cilia to get microscopic animals out of the water. Water currents push the tiny animals into the oyster shell, where they stick to a layer of mucus. And then the cilia of the oysters push the mucus loaded with microscopic animals towards the mouth of the oyster, where there are soft finger organs that push the mucus loaded with food into the mouth of the oyster. The toothless baleen whale swallows large amounts of water containing its food from zooplankton and phytoplankton inside its mouth, where it adheres to the horny plates known as baleen that hang in rows from the roof of the whale’s mouth.

Nutrition through the jaws and teeth

Many animals use their jaws and teeth to catch and chew food. For example, the lion and cat usually use their strong jaws and teeth to catch their prey, and they also use them to cut their food into small pieces that they chew before swallowing. Cows and horses use their teeth to cut herbs. Birds’ beaks lack teeth but are fine for picking up and mashing grains. Many birds, such as the flycatcher, the robin, the swallow and the squirrel, use their beaks to catch insects. The eagle, the hawk and the owl tear the prey with their hooked beaks. Among aquatic animals, such as octopuses and cuttlefish, they have beak-like jaws that they use to devour fish and crabs they catch with their antennae filled with suckers. Insects and millipedes (multi-legged animals) use their jaws and teeth to catch and chew food.

digestive organs

Most animals have organs that digest the food they eat. Food may be stored in the animal’s stomach for a while after ingestion, and then pass into the intestine where it is digested while the undigested waste passes out through the animal’s lower intestine. Some animals, such as birds, earthworms, and insects, store food in a giblet instead of a stomach. In birds, crocodiles, lobsters and some other animals with a gizzard, the food passes from the gizzard to the gizzard, where it is finely ground before passing to the intestines where it is digested. Cows, sheep, and most other animals called ruminants have stomachs made up of four different parts, each of which plays an important role in digesting food. And there are some animals, such as some parasites such as tapeworms, that do not have a digestive system, as tapeworms live in the small intestine of other animals and absorb the digested food present there.

animal breathing

The respiratory openings are outside the insect’s body. Air enters the body through these openings and flows into the air sacs, and then the bronchial network distributes it to all parts of the insect’s body.

Every animal needs a constant and constant supply of oxygen to produce the energy needed for its life. Most animals have special structures in their bodies that take oxygen from the animal’s environment. Aquatic animals get oxygen from water, while land animals get it from air. All but a few animals use some form of respiration by taking in oxygen and excreting carbon dioxide. A few types of animals, including tapeworms and other intestinal parasites, live in places where there is no oxygen at all, so they rely on a digestive system Especially enabling it to get oxygen from its food.

Breathing through the gills and lungs

The gills are the respiratory organs of most fish. Thin gill tissues absorb oxygen from the water. The fish swallows the water and pushes it through the gill openings.

Most aquatic vertebrates breathe through gills, and most terrestrial ones breathe through lungs. The fish enters the water through its mouth to cover the gills, which extract oxygen from it and then throw it out through openings or gaps between the gills. Different species of land animals have lungs that function in many ways. Frogs, for example, push air into their lungs under pressure, using the base of the mouth as a pump. As for snakes and lizards, they use the muscles between their ribs to increase the size of their bodies, and therefore air enters their lungs to occupy the void created by that increase in body size. As for warm-blooded animals, birds and mammals, they have special muscles and respiratory organs that enable them to obtain large amounts of oxygen, because their bodies produce more energy than the bodies of cold-blooded animals because they are usually more active than cold-blooded animals. They use a large amount of energy to maintain the level of their body temperature, no matter how the temperature of the environment in which they live changes. As for cold-blooded animals, their body temperature changes according to the temperature of the medium in which they are located.

special breathing methods

the lungs

Most animals are invertebrates insects. It obtains oxygen through tubes called trachea, which extend from openings in the body wall to all the internal organs of the insect. The muscles of the insect’s body pump air into and out of those tubes. Other invertebrates, such as crabs, lobsters, and lobsters, have gills under the thinner parts of the body on top of the legs.

The aquatic spider breathes underwater with large air bubbles attached to its body. There are small bubbles of air around the bristles of the spider’s body that provide an additional source of air.

Most spiders have a pair of lungs with thin sheets of tissue similar to the pages of a book, and thus they are called book lungs. Aquatic spiders can breathe with these lungs underwater, by carrying with them into the water air bubbles surrounding their bodies when they are immersed in the water. Some freshwater snails have lungs, so they come out to the surface to breathe, as air enters their lungs through a hole in the side of the snail’s body. As for the rest of the freshwater snails and all the saltwater snails, they have gills with which they breathe inside the water and they do not need to rise to the surface to breathe. Some worms and all other invertebrates absorb all the oxygen they need through their body walls. Earthworms, for example, breathe through their moist body wall.

animal reproduction

Animals reproduce both sexually and asexually. The planarian and hydra reproduce asexually. The planarian (left), is cut into separate worms. The hydra (center) grow from protrusions on the parents called buds. In sexual reproduction “to the right” a sperm fertilizes an egg and then the zygote grows into a new animal.

All animals reproduce (beget offspring of their own kind). Most of them have special physical structures for reproduction, and the rest reproduce without these special structures. There are two main methods that animals use for reproduction: 1- Asexual Reproduction and 2- Sexual Reproduction. Only one parent produces the young in non-sexual reproduction. In sexual reproduction, two parents produce the young. Most simple animals, such as sponges, jellyfish , flatworms , and sea squirts, reproduce mostly asexually, but sometimes also sexually. Most other animals reproduce only sexually.

asexual reproduction

Many flatworms reproduce by fragmentation, in which the body of the worm breaks into two or more pieces and from each piece a new worm emerges. The planarian usually cuts its body in half, and in each half of the lost organs grows to become a new worm, and the planarian can reproduce sexually as well. Hydra and corals reproduce asexually by budding, in which small protrusions called buds grow on the animal’s body. Some of them grow with their different organs and are separated from the mother animal as an independent individual, while many sponges reproduce by forming buds, which are structures similar to buds, but consist of special cells inside a protective cover. It may arise from those cells a new individual.

Sexual reproduction

Most species of animals that reproduce only sexually have special cells from which their young develop. Female sex cells are called eggs, and male sex cells are called sperms (sperm). A new organism is created when a sperm fuses with an egg, and this fusion is called fertilization. Some animals that reproduce sexually may produce offspring even without mating between them. For example, sea ​​urchins secreteMillions of eggs and sperm in the ocean waters. Some of these cells may find each other and then fuse between them or fertilization in the ocean waters, and young fertilized eggs emerge from the fertilized eggs that swim in the water, then descend to the ocean floor where they become integrated sea urchins similar to their parents. But mating takes place between the majority of animals that reproduce sexually, where males and females meet first in order to mate between them. The acquaintance and meeting between the sexes is done in many ways in different animals. In birds, for example, the sexes are acquainted according to a specific color scheme in the beaks, feathers or legs, where the sexes are distinguished in the color pattern of those places. As for the firefly, one of the sexes waits for a member of the opposite sex to emit light in a certain way in order for them to get acquainted, meet and mate. Female moths secrete a scent in the night air to attract males to mate, and males of grasshoppers, harvest cicadas, frogs and toads make sounds calling their females to mate.


Some lower species of animals can produce offspring or replace lost body parts through a process called regeneration. This process is similar to a common process of reproduction among plants. If the hydra is cut into several pieces, each piece becomes a new hydra , and if some of the sponges are broken down by passing them through a wire mesh, from some of these small pieces a new sponge emerges. Crabs and lobsters will grow new claws if those claws are broken. Regeneration also takes place even in some vertebrates. If the salamander loses a man, a new one grows for him, and many long-tailed lizards deliberately amputate his tail to escape from the grip of an enemy, and then a new tail grows for him in a short period. But regeneration in higher animals takes place only in hair, nails, skin and some other body tissues.

animal senses

animal senses

Most animals have parts of their body that respond to changes in the environment in which they live. The source of the stimulus (change) may be smell, sight, sound, taste or touch. Simple animals do not have special parts of their bodies that respond to external stimuli, but do so with all the cells of their body. As for the complex animals, especially vertebrates, they have highly formed organs that respond to external stimuli.


Some simple animals, such as the hydra and the gelatinous comb, interact with external stimuli by means of special cells scattered between the peripheral cells of the animal body. As for the response of most other animal species to external stimuli, it depends to a large extent on one or more of its basic senses, namely sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch. But some of those senses may be more important to one type of animal than another. Most birds, for example, can’t get food if you don’t see it. The hearing is the most important especially for bats. If I cover the bat’s ears, it cannot fly at all, but rather collides with everything it encounters. And the delicate sense of smell is what enables dogs to find food, track traces, and identify dangers they may face. As for the sense of taste, it is very important for many insects, as the butterfly determines the food by tasting the sweetness of the nectar of flowers through its legs.

the behavior

Scientists constantly study the interactions of animals to understand their behaviour. Behavior includes all the animal’s responses to stimuli and the ways in which it behaves with those stimuli. It seems that the general behavior of most animals depends on the patterns of their interaction that God Almighty created with them, which are reflexive instincts and actions, and they are not related to a rational assessment of the consequences of actions, because God Almighty has bestowed that only on humans from His creation. Animals act out of the instincts that the Creator, may He be glorified, placed in them, not out of learning those behaviors and without a rational assessment of the consequences of those actions. Instinctively, the moth flies immediately after its exit from its cocoon to find its food from the juices of plants without anyone knowing that. This is an instinct that God Almighty created in it. The Creator, glorified and exalted is His power, has deposited in His creation from animals a set of instincts that enable them to survive in this world. God Almighty has endowed some animal species with a kind of intelligence (i.e. some ability to learn from experience to solve some dilemmas); Vertebrates have some intelligence, unlike invertebrates. Among vertebrates, great apes, apes, and dolphins quickly learn to solve certain problems that require some kind of intelligence. Invertebrates such as insects and lobsters show an ability to learn only after careful training. Even an earthworm can be trained to step left or right to avoid an electric shock. And it became clear from the many studies carried out by many scientists that the chimpanzee can learn faster than any other animal, but is it possible for a chimpanzee to write a letter to be read in another year? This is impossible, because the advantages of arranging and writing down ideas and knowledge and transmitting them from one generation to another are only some of the many blessings that God Almighty bestowed on His successor on earth, man without any other creation of His creation. God Almighty says in the Holy Qur’an:

Communication between animals

An animal uses its senses to receive communications from other animals of its kind. For example, when a male robin hears another male robin sing, he knows very well that the singing bird will be desperate in defending his province against him, as for the female robin, the singing male will welcome her to enter his province for the purpose of mating with her. Some animals may communicate by odor signature, where a female gypsy moth or a female silkworm moth emits a distinctive scent in the air to announce that they are ready to mate. The males of these moths then fly from a distance of up to a kilometer, expressing in response to that smell to mate with those females. The tiger males and the common males of the feline family distinguish the borders of their provinces by urinating at those borders. The smell of urine tells any male tiger that that territory is being occupied by another male tiger. Some animals use facial and body expressions for communication. A baboon might threaten another baboon by pushing its shoulders forward and opening its mouth, baring its huge, sharp teeth and fangs. An angry male gorilla might throw leaves in the air and pound his chest with his fists. The honeybees perform two kinds of dances to tell the rest of the hive where the flowers with abundant nectar are located. If a honey bee finds flowers with nectar near its hive, it returns to its hive and dances in circles. But if those flowers are far from their cells, they dance in a straight line towards the presence of the flowers, and then other worker bees fly in that direction to find flowers with nectar.

classification of the animal kingdom

Phylum Chordata classification

Scientists categorize animals into taxonomic groups based on their similarities and contrasts, and this is a logical way to organize information about animals and highlight connections between them. The following taxonomic tables highlight some of the major animal groups and some of their important characteristics. The tables are arranged from one-celled animals to the most complex animals. The taxonomy of biology is one of the most thorny topics, as there are very large differences between the different taxonomic schools. The most agreed upon by zoologists is the division of the animal kingdom into several kingdoms: the kingdom of protozoa, the kingdom of Parazoa, and the kingdom of true multicellular . This is considering that the system of the Five Kingdoms proposed by the American scientist Robert HoyttakerSince 1969, the classification of living things has not yet found complete acceptance among biologists, despite its many great advantages that solve many of the classification problems found in the old system of the two kingdoms. In the old system, scientists classified living things into only two kingdoms: the plant kingdom and the animal kingdom . In the five kingdoms of the system , we find that the priorities are Mmelch within the Kingdom Algrticiat ( Albrootista ), but in the two kingdoms system is one of the priorities Almmilcat in the animal kingdom.

animal future

Some scholars believe that we live in an era of extinction. In the United States alone, about 40 bird species, 35 mammal species and 25 animal species have become extinct over the past 200 years. Many of these species have become extinct due to human activity, and hundreds of other species in the United States are endangered (in danger of extinction). But more and more people are working today to preserve the diversity of animal life for the benefit of future generations.

How do humans threaten animals?

Humans threaten animals in many ways, some of which are summarized here. habitat destruction. When people build cities, cut down forests for timber, or clear land for agriculture, animal environments are destroyed. For example, grizzly bears and mountain lions once roamed freely in the present-day location of San Francisco, but they cannot live in the city today. Today, the habitats of animals in tropical forests are under greater threat than others, as people cut down trees at breakneck speed for valuable hardwoods such as mahogany and teak,

and clear the land to grow agricultural crops. Because the soil in these areas is not highly fertile, the farms only produce crops for a few years, so farmers clear more areas, by cutting down their trees. By the early 1990s, the areas destroyed included about two-fifths of the world’s tropical forests. Many scientists, and others interested in wildlife, pay particular attention to the destruction of tropical forests, pointing out that biodiversity, the presence of large numbers of plant and animal species, in these forests, exceeds the biodiversity in any other environment. Just three kilometers of forest in South America may contain more bird species than we find in many countries. In fact, scientists have discovered, that one tree in a tropical forest in Peru is home to 43 species of ants. This number is equal to the number of ant species in the whole of the United Kingdom. Although a number of animal life may be found in one place in the tropics, the total number of many tropical species is very small. Therefore, clearing a large area of ​​forests leads to the killing of all living organisms belonging to some species. pollution. A number of types of pollution can also destroy animals and their habitats.

Agricultural chemicals and industrial waste sometimes seep into ponds and rivers, killing the wildlife there. Air pollution from factories that use fossil fuels such as coal and oil also leads to severe destruction of forests and wildlife. Fish and other animals die due to acid rain, i.e. rain concentrated with sulfuric and nitric acids resulting from air pollution. Increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere poses a long-term threat to animals and their habitats. Many factories, in addition to cars and power plants, emit carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Forest trees and plants help absorb this gas, but because they are being cut down, carbon dioxide levels are increasing. Many scientists believe that the increasing amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is accelerating the rate of global warming, resulting from a phenomenon known as the greenhouse effect.

Introducing new species

The introduction of new species into a particular area may have unexpected results. In the mid-nineteenth century, for example, people introduced rabbits into the wild in Australia. Because of the absence of natural enemies of rabbits in those areas, their numbers increased in abundance, and this breeding, in turn, led to the disappearance of the hare-eared hawthorn – one of the endemic animals in Australia – from some areas of the continent. This disappearance was caused by the competition for the rabbits, which resulted from the presence of the large number of rabbits, and because the poisons and traps that people used against rabbits also killed large numbers of them.

And humans may cause the entry of new species of animals to a certain area, unintentionally. The zebra mussel, for example, is a shell animal that inhabits the area around the Caspian Sea, between Europe and Asia. These animals were first found in North America, in 1988, when their larvae were unintentionally released into the Great Lakes through the balance water, which is the water that is kept inside the ship to maintain its balance. Today, zebra mussels are a major pest in North America, and their presence may threaten the food resources of many of the fish and shellfish that inhabit the Great Lakes. the hunt. Over the centuries, the overhunting of many animals has led to their annihilation. Prehistoric hunters, for example, may have caused the extinction of woolly mammoths and mastodons by hunting them.

Overfishing in the past two hundred years in particular was one of the most important causes of the destruction of animal life, as it caused the extinction of creatures such as the great auk, migratory pigeons and the Steller sea cow.

Population growth

The human population in the world is steadily increasing. The world population at the end of the nineties of the twentieth century reached about 6 billion people, about five times the number of the world’s population in 1850 AD. Some experts expect that the world population in 2050 will reach about 11.5 billion people, about twice the current population. This massive increase in population will add an additional burden to or destroy natural habitats.

How do humans protect animals?

Since the late 19th century people have become increasingly interested in the decline of the world’s wildlife. This interest has been driven in part by people’s increasing awareness of the interrelationships between species – the web of life. Many people now know that the disappearance of large numbers of species threatens the lives of other living things, including humans.

protected areas

Many countries are interested in building national parks, game conservation areas, and fungal sanctuaries, in which animal habitats are protected from encroachment, and hunting is prohibited. Many wildlife conservationists believe that these areas represent the last hope for the protection of some endangered species. In India, for example, there are now about 25,000 square kilometers dedicated to tiger conservation. The number of tigers in India has doubled since the implementation of the project called Project Tiger in 1973. Yellowstone National Park is home to rare animals such as grizzly bears, bison, bald eagles and trumpets. The African elephant and black rhino are protected in parks and refuges in the African savannah.

Animals are also protected by international conventions. By 1988, for example, all countries stopped commercial whaling because many whale species were endangered. The signatories to the Antarctic Treaty also agreed to adopt laws to protect Antarctic flora and fauna. laws. Laws also protect wildlife in various countries. In the United States, for example, officials maintain a list of endangered species. The laws require anyone who wants to exploit a habitat inhabited by an endangered species, to prove that the expected changes will not affect that species. In Malaysia, anyone who kills, injures, or captures a Sa’ala is punishable by imprisonment. Some government agencies also limit the number of game species of certain species that can be caught in each season. When a particular species becomes rare, government agencies resort to reducing the number of legally allowed to catch of that species, to compensate for the loss.


Some species, such as the California condor, have become so rare, leading scientists to believe that the only way to save these species is to breed them in captivity. Other endangered animals that are now being bred in captivity include the Arabian oryx, the sun bear, the salaat, and the squawking crane. In the case of the growth of their numbers, attempts are made to return some of them to the natural life.

Some species are now being returned to their original places, for example the lynx has been returned to the Vosges mountains in France and the Jura mountains in Switzerland. The bearded Gerbeptus is now flying in other regions over the Alps.

The future of the wildlife remains uncertain despite the efforts of those involved in its conservation. Humans are constantly growing, forests and grasslands are still being destroyed, people continue to hunt African elephants, tigers and other endangered animals, and air pollution, acid rain and water pollution threaten the life of the species.

animal intelligence
  • Great apes and monkeys. She has the ability to learn more than any other animal. For example, chimpanzees (chimpanzees) use tools to perform various tasks. It is known about the bastard that it clears the thin branches and uses it to hunt termites from its hills in the forests of the African continent, and therefore the bastard is considered the smartest animal ever.
  • marine mammals. Both dolphins and whales have brains close to that of humans. The cone-nose dolphin is the smartest aquatic animal and has been taught to perform some complex work.
  • Carnivorous mammals. Both the cat and the dog demonstrated better learning abilities than all other animals except for the great apes, monkeys and marine mammals. Bears, lions, jaguars, and wolves may learn as quickly as cats and dogs.
  • Hoofed animals. Both the elephant and the horse respond well to commands and signals, but the pig is better at solving dilemmas between hoofed animals.
  • rodents; They usually find their way through complex ground passages, and can distinguish one form from another. The squirrel is one of the smartest rodents.
  • the birds. Both raven and pigeon can solve simple arithmetic problems. As for parrots and many other birds, they have a great ability to imitate and remember sounds.
  • Amphibians and reptiles. These animals are difficult to test. But if many of them are placed in front of many aisles, they often choose the paths that lead to food.
  • fish. Many fish distinguish colors, as they can be taught to swim towards certain colors and avoid others. Some, such as salmon, can remember colors for many years.
  • invertebrates; She has very little ability to learn, but some of them can be trained to avoid dangerous places and go to safe places.

Aristotle divides the world of biology into animals and plants , and Carolas Linnaeus followed this division in the first sequential structural classification. Since then, biologists have emphasized evolutionary relationships, which has led to the identification and limitation of the characteristics of each group. For example, microscopic protozoa were initially considered animals because they moved, but are now treated as a separate group.

Kingdom Animalia is characterized by several characteristics that distinguish it from other living creatures. Animals objects multiple cells multicellular and real cores eukaryotic, which distinguishes it from microbial bacteria and most protists protists. Animals objects heterotrophic heterotrophic, the food isusually digest in an internal cavity internal chamber, which distinguishes it from plants , and algae (algae) algae, and fungi loss of cellular walls .


With the exception of sponges (Phylum Porifera), animals usually have bodies differentiated into separate tissues. These tissues include muscles, which are able to contract and control motor function, a nervous system, which sends and receives nerve signals to coordinate body movements and functions, and an internal digestive cavity with one or two openings. Animals that have this kind of organization are called metazoans, or eumetazoans if we use the previous term for animals in general.

All animals are composed of eukaryotic cells surrounded by an intercellular matrix composed of collagen and flexible glycoproteins. This intercellular tissue can calcify to form shells, bones, and spicules.

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